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Education Station

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GLOSSARY

Accoutrements
    The tack saddles, bridles and bits worn by the horse.
Aging
    Age in the horse is determined by the examination of its six incisor teeth. When all of the permanent incisor teeth have fully erupted, the horse is said to have a 'full mouth.'
Aids
    The various means employed by the rider to transmit his or her wishes to the horse. There are two types - the natural aids (legs, hands, seat and voice) and the artificial (whip and spur).
Airs Above the Ground
    The name given to schooling movements in which the horse jumps into the air. Examples are ballotade, croupage, courbette, captiole and levade.
Airs, Classical
    The aim of classical equitation is to develop and perfect the natural movements of the horse. Exercises on the ground, of the kind required in dressage tests, range from walk, trot and canter.
Azoturia
    Condition affecting the muscular system, also known as Monday-morning disease.
Bareme
    The name given to the table under which a jumping competition is judged. Table A covers jumping only, and Table C speed.
Barrage
    The alternate name for a jumo-off, in which horses with equal scores at the end of a competition compete against each other again. The resulrs can either be decided by the number of faults, time against the clock, or a combination of the two.
Bitless Bridle
    A bridle without a mouthpiece, the horse being controlled by pressure on the nose. Its alternate name is a hackamore.
Blanket Clip
    Removal of the coat from the neck, belly and the tops of the legs, leaving a blanket shape over the back.
Box-Walking
    A stable vice, when a horse paces endlessly around its stable.
Brushing
    The term applied when a horse strikes its fetlock with the shoe on the opposite foot. It is usually a result of faulty action.
Buck
    When a horse kicks his or her hindquarters into the air, balancing on it's front legs while doing so.
Byerley Turk
    An Arab stallion who was one of the three founders of the English Thoroughbred. The Byerley Turk was captured from the Turks at the siege of Budapest and brought back to England by Captain Byerley, hence the name.
Canker
    Infection on the sole of the foot.
Captilli, Federico
    (1868-1907) Italian cavalry officer who originated the chief modern style of riding, and introduced his celebrated Forward Seat to replace the accepted classical method of riding.
Carpitis
    Sore shins or knee troubles in young Thoroughbreds, caused by overwork and strain.
Cast
    When a horse is lying down in the stable, unable to get up, because it has somehow become wedged against the wall.
Cavalletti
    Small fence consisting of a squared off pole, supported at each end in an X shaped support. Cavalletti are used for schooling, either in the form of a grif or built up to make a fence.
Chaff
    Chopped up hay or oat straw. It is mixed with corn or bran to form a bulk feed.
Chef d'equipe
    Term used in the horse world to describe a team manager. Show jumping teams and Eventing teams all have their chef q'equipe, whose role is organizational and strategical.
Chestnut
    Small piece of horn on the inside of horse's legs. Also a coat color.
Clinch
    End of nail holding a shoe in place, visible round the front of the hoof. Known also as clench.
Cob
    Name given to a stocky, short-legged horse, not much over or under 15.1 hands, with good bone and body and up to weight. The best ones are good rides and have the ability to gallop willingly and freely.
Coldblooded
    Any of the heavy horse breeds, or those tending towards heaviness.
Colic
    Disorder in the horse's digestive organs, causing acute abdominal pain.
Collect
    To pull a schooled horse together by creating impulsion with the legs and containing it with the hands. As a result, the horse brings its hing legs more under its body.
Colostrum
    The first milk, containing bital antibodies, that a foal drinks from its dam.
Colt
    Term used to descrive a young male horse under four years old.
Combined Training
    A Dressage and Show Jumping competition, possibly including a Cross Country test, as in the Three Day Event.
COPD
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, known previously as 'broken wind.'
Covering
    A stud term - a mare is covered when she is mated.
Cow Hocks
    A conformational weakness of the horse. The points and the joints of the hocks incline towards one another.
Cribbing
    A stable vice, in which the horse gets hold of the door or manger with the incisors and swallows air. This leads to indigestion.
Cross-breed
    The offspring of the mating of two different breeds of horse.
Cubes
    Complete concentrated horse and pony feed, known also as nuts.
Curb
    A prominence situated a hand's breadth below the point of the heck, caused by sprain of the calcaneometatarsal ligament. It is conspicuous when the horse is viewed from the side and is a serious blemish as far as a show horse is concerned.
Curb Bit
    A bit consisting of a straight mouthpiece to which are attached two hooks. These hold the curb chain, which fits into the chin groove on the lower jaw.
Curry Comb
    A large, flat metal comb used to clean the body brush - never the horse.
Dam
    Mother horse.
Darley Arabian
    The most important of the three founders of the English Thoroughbred, the horse was imported in 1700 to Britain from the east by a Mr. Darley.
Deep Litter
    System of bedding in which only the surface soiled bedding is removed each day,and more clean bedding spread on top.
Derby (Jumping)
    The prototype Show Jumping Derby was held in Hamburg in 1920. The course includes Cross Country type Show Jumping over a long course, which permanent fences such as banks, sunken coffin type fences, table fences, ditches and stone walls.
Dish-face
    Convexed profile to a horse's face -- as in an Arabian.
Dishing
    Faulty action, in which the front feed move in an almost circular motion.
Double
    Two fences with only a short distance between them, which the rider has to jump as a combination.
Double Bridle
    A showing bridle, also used by some riders in the hunting field and Dressage arena. It consists of two bits, a curb and a snaffle, each with separate cheek pieces an dits own rein.
Drag Hunt
    A form of hunting gaining increasing popularitiy. Instead of chasing a live quarry, the hunters and hounds follow a scent which has been put down artificially, often using an aniseed trail laid by a runner.
Draw Rein
    A rein fixed to the girth and passing through the rings of the bit to the rider's hand.
Dressing (the foot)
    Trimming of the foot, done every four to six weeks by the farrier.
Dressing (the naval)
    Application of antibiotic powder to the ruptured umbilical cord of a newly born foal.
Driving Competitions
    The sport of Combined Driving, based on the ridden Three Day Event.
Entire
    The term used to describe an ungelded horse.
Equine
    Of, or pertaining to, the horse or horse family. It is the Latin name for horse.
Equus Caballus
    The scientific name for the domestic horse.
Ergot
    Small horny growth on the skin of the back of the fetlock joints.
Filly
    The name gicen toa young mare, under four years old. It is chiefly associated with racing.
First-stage Labor
    Opening of cervix and emergence of amniotic sac during early labor.
Foal
    Male or female horse or pony, up to one year old.
Foaled
    Born, as in 'foaled in 1946.'
Forging
    Striking the sole of the fore foot with the toe of the hind foot.
Frog
    V-shaped part of sole of foot which acts as a shock absorber during motion.
Gag
    A gag snaffle bit has cheek piece which pass through holes in the top and bottom of the rings and lead right on to the reins. It is a severe bit and should only be used by a rider with good hands.
Galls
    Areas on an unfit horse's body which have been rubbed raw by ill-fitting girths and saddles. They are a sign of bad horsemanship and stable management. Work should cease until the galls are healed and the skin has hardened.
Galvayne's Grove
    A dark brown mark which appears on the corner incisor teeth when the horse is ten years old. It grows down the tooth as the horse grows older.
Gamgee
    Gauze-covered cotton wool, used under stable and traveling bandages for warmth and protection.
Gastrophilus Intestinalis
    Adult botflies - a horse parasite.
Gelding
    A casterated male horse or pony.
Girth Galls
    Sores on the underbelly or behind the elbow, caused by girth rubbing.
Godolphin Arab or Barb
    The third stallion to play a part in the foundation of the English Thoroughbred. The Godolphin Arab was bought in Paris in 1729 by a Mr. Edward Coke of Derbyshire.
Going
    Used to describe various state of the ground. Going can be soft, hard holding, (sticky mud) and so on.
Grand Pardubice
    A grueling steeplechase in former Czechoslovakia, founded in 1874 by Count Octavian Kinsky and held annually on the second Sunday in October.
Hackamore
    A bitless bridle.
Hand
    Unit of measure eqyakubg 4 inches, used to estimate a horse or pony's height.
Hard Feed
    Any type of corn or concentrated feed.
Haute Ecole
    The art of advanced horsemanship.
Hobdayed
    Horses with afflictions of their respiratory organs can be cured by the Hobdaying operation. The operation consists of removing the paralyzed vocal cords, which inhabit breathing, from the larynx.
Horse
    Any breed of Equus Caballus measuring 14.2 hands high or higher. See also Pony.
Hotblood
    Term used to describe a horse breed originating in western or central Asia, such as the Arabian, Barb and Thoroughbred.
Hunter Clips
    Removing all of the hair from a horse's body except for an english sadle mark and that on the legs.
Joint Measuring Scheme
    A recognized scheme for measuring horses and ponies, approved and sponsored by various equestrian societies and associations.
Kentucky Derby
    The most famous Thoroughbred race in the USA. It is held at Churchill Downs, Louisville, Kentucky for three-year-olds carrying 126 lbs. and run over 1 1/4 miles.
Loose Box
    Self-contained indoor accommodation for horses and ponies.
Lungeing
    The training of a young horse on a circle from the ground, using a long lungeing rein.
Lungeing Rein
    A webbing rein, some forty feet long, which is attached to the bridle. It enables the horse to be schooled or exercised in circles around the user without actually being ridden.
Lungworm
    A species of horse parasite that causes respitatory problems unless preventive treatment is given.
Lymphangitis
    A circulatory disorder - inflammation of the lymph vessels.
Martingale
    A device designed to prevent a horse from raising its head to evade the bit.
Maryland Hunt Cup
    Oneo f the oldest and most celebrated steeplechases in the USA, the Maryland Hunt Cup has been run annually since 1896 at Glyndon, some ten miles from Baltimore, over a permanent course built in natural hunting country.
Nap
    A nappy horse refuses to do as the rider wishes, usually failing to move in the desired direction. Instead, te horse stands still and may try to buck or rear.
Nappy
    The term used to describe disobedience - shying, tossing the head, etc. - in a horse.
Native Ponies
    Any of the pony breeds native to the British Isles - Exmoor, Dartmoor, Welsh Mountain, New Forest, Fell, Dale, Connemara or Shetland.
Navicular Disease
    A chronic inglammation of the navicular bone in the foot, caused by concusion. Show Jumpers are particularly prone to it and are often denerved (the nerves cut) in order to prolong their active life.
Nearside
    The left side of your horse or pony.
New Zealand Rug
    Heavy Waterproof rug with woolen lining, for horses or ponies out at grass in the winter.
Numnah
    A pad, usually made of sheepskin, the same shape as the saddle. It is placed under the saddle to prevent it from rubbing on the  horses back.
Offside
    Right side of a horse or pony.
Osetrus/Estrus
    Breeding period of a mare.
Over-reaching
    Fault action, in which the heel of the front foot is struck by the toe of the hind.
Pacer
    A harness horse who, instead of employing a true (trotting) pace, moves the near and the hind leg on the simultaneously same side. Such horses are frequently hobbled to encourage this type of movement.
Passage
    A schooling movement consisting of a very rhythmic, collected, elevated, cadenced trot in which there is pronounced engagement of the quarters, an accentuated flexion of the knees and the hocks, and graceful elasticity of movement.
Pelham
    A bit which combined snaggle and curb in one mouthpiece.
Piaffe
    A very collected trot on the spot asked for in dressage and schooling work. The horse's back should be supple and vibrating, which the hocks well engaged, so giving great freedom and lightness to the action of the forehand.
Pirouette
    A schooling movement in which the horse turns a full circle in its own length.
Plaiting
    Faulty action, in which the foot moves across and inwards to land more or less in front of the opposite foot.
Points
    Term used to descrive the differnt parts of a horse's anatomy. Also used in connection with color to describe the mane, tail and lower legs.
Polo
    A stick and ball game on horseback for teams of four players. Polo probably originated in Persia, though it was played all over the East, particularly in China and India.
Polocrosse
    A game based on polo and lacrosse, particularly popular in Australia. It is less exclusive than polo because of its relative cheapness.
Pony
    Any breed of Equus Caballus measuring less than 14.2 hands high.
Pulling (mane and tail)
    The thinning of the hairs of the mane and top of the tail by carefully and selectively pulling them out.
Quartering
    Brief grooming, given before a horse is taken out on exercise.
Rasping (of feet)
    Filling the outer hoof, done by the blacksmith as he trims the feet and re-shoes a horse.
Rig
    A male horse with one or both testicles retained in the abdomen. An operation can enable them to descend; after this,the animal should be gelded, as the tendency can be hereditary.
Ringworm
    Contagious skin disease, caused by a fungus. Hair loss occurs in little round patches.
Roman Nose
    Convex profile to the face.
Saddle Galls
    Sores on the back under the saddle, caused by an ill-fitting saddle, or one that rubs a sensitive back.
Salt-lick
    Shaped block of salt, fitted into a holder for a horse int he stable or paddock.
Second-stage Labor
    Rupture of the amniotic sac, following by period of straining, ending with the birth of the foal.
Setting Fair (of bed)
    Putting downa horse's bed before bedding down at night.
Setting Fair (of coat)
    Superficial grooming to smooth the coat after removing rugs.
Sickle Hocks
    A conformational fault. Seen broadside-on, the hocks are two concaved - literally like a sickle.
Side Reins
    Part of breaking equipment. They are attached to the horse from the bit to the roller or saddle.
Single Bridle
    Bridle with just one bit-most frequently a snaffle.
Sire
    Father horse.
Snaffle
    The simplest form of bit and the one in most frequent use. It consists of a straight or jointed mouthpiece and a ring at either end for the reins.
Spavin
    A bony enlargement on the lower inner aspect of the hock joint, caused by periostitis.
Speedy Cut
    A wound inside the leg, around the knee, or cannon bone caused by the shoe on the opposite foot.
Splints
    Inflammatory boney outgrowths involved in the small metacarpal or metatarsal or 'splint' bones. They seldom cause lameness when formed.
Sprained Tendons
    Sprains usually affect the flexor or back tendones or horses used for fact work, such as racehorses or hunters. When the sprain is really serious, the horse is said to have broken down.
Stable Vices
    Various bad habits acquired by horses, usually through boredom at being stabled.
Stallion
    Uncastrated male horse.
Stalls
    Indoor equine accommodations, where horses are kept in three-sided compartments, separated from one another by side walls.
Strangles
    An acute infectious disease of the lymph glands in the intermandibular cavity. Symptoms are fever, nasal discharge and abcesses, which may also develop in other glands about the head.
Strapping
    Thorough grooming of a stabled horse after exercise.
Strongylus Vulgaris
    Migrating larvae of the horse parasite, the red worm.
Surcingle
    A webbing band with straps and buckles which passes round the horse's girth. It is used to hold rugs in place.
Sweet Itch
    A condition of the mane and tail, causing intense irritation.
Tack
    Items of saddlery and equipment used in the riding and training of horses.
Temperature
    The normal temperature of a horse is 100.5 degrees F. It is taken by inserting a thermometer into the rectum, taking care to position it to one side to obrain an accurate reading.
Tetanus
    One of the chief killers of unprotected horses. Infection usually comes from bacterial penetration of a puncture wound. Prevention is all important, as cures are rare. Regular injection of anti-tetanus toxin and regular booster doses should be performed.
Three-quarter Bred
    Offspring of a Thoroughbred mare or stallion and Thoroughbred-cross mare or stallion.
Thrush
    An evil smelling infection or frog of the foot. It is caused by unhygenic stable conditions.
Trace-clip
    The removal of hair in line down the underside of the neck, the belly and the top of the legs.
Triple
    Three fences in such close alignment that they are related and hae to be jumped as a combination.
Triple Bar
    One staircase type fence of three bars progressive height.
Twitch
    A stick with soft rope attached, placed over the upper lip and twisted until the lip is firmly held. It acts as a restraint to a horse  and is used for specific purposes, such as during clipping.
Unthriftiness
    Failure to thrive in normal conditions.
Vetting
    Examination given to a horse by a vet to determine soundness, etc.
Warmblooded
    Horses possessing Arabian or Thoroughbred blood in their ancestry.
Weaving
    A stable vice, caused by boredom. A weaving horse rocks from side to side and loses condition through not getting adequate rest.
Windgalls
    Synovial distension in the region of the fetlock joint. They are usually caused by working young horses too much on hard going.
Windsucking
    A stable-vice usually associated with cribbing and caused by boredom. The horse grips the edge of the manger with its teeth, arches its neck, and gulps in great drafts of air.
Wolf Teeth
    First premolar teeth, occurring usually in the upper jaw. They are often very sharp and can cause considerable pain.
Yearling
    Male or female horse between one and two years old.


PHOTOGRAPHS

Points of a horse
Leg Markings
Face Markings
English Saddle
Western Saddle
Points of a Hoof
Parts of a Snaffle Bridle
Emergency Bridle's
Emergency Halter's
Martingale and Breastplate